Covariates of interest include age, gender and the following risk factors:

Body Mass Index was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters.

Smoking status refers to current smokers or subjects having <5 years of cessation (Marston et al., 2014).

CAD patients were classified as diabetic when taking antidiabetic medication or if their fasting glucose was higher than 126 mg/dL (American Diabetes Association, 2020).

Dyslipidemia was defined as Low-Density Lipoprotein>140 mg/dL, High-Density Lipoprotein<45 mg/dL for women and <40 mg/dL for men, Triglycerides>150 mg/dL (Catapano et al., 2016).

CAD family history is considered if one or more close relatives had early CVD: under 55 for men or before 65 for women (Kolber and Scrimshaw, 2014).

Physical inactivity was considered a risk factor when subjects practised less than 40 minutes per week of moderate physical activity (Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, 2008).

Arterial hypertension (ATH) was defined as mean blood pressure of over 140 mmHg (systolic), over 90 mmHg (diastolic), or when blood pressure was controlled, if patients were taking antihypertensive drugs (Mancia et al., 2018).

The consumption of alcohol in grams per week was quantified and considered significant if it was superior to 60 g/week in men and 40 g/week in women. Alcohol abuse was quantified at more than 300 g/week, which corresponds to exceeding two drinks daily (Rehm et al., 1999).

All laboratory analyses (fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B (Apo B), lipoprotein (a), homocysteine, C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, leucocytes and hemoglobin) were carried out in the Clinical Pathology Laboratory of the Central Hospital with quality accreditation, based on the Agencia de Calidad Sanitaria de Andalucía (ACSA) Model (international version).

Heart rate was measured by the number of heart beats per minute (bpm) (Spodick et al., 1992).

Creatinine (cr) clearance was calculated through the Cockcroft Gault’ formula (Cockcroft and Gault, 1976).

Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured during cardiac angiography or by two-dimensional echocardiography. It was based on volume estimation as LVEF= [(end-diastolic volume - end-systolic volume) ÷ end-diastolic volume] × 100 (using the apical two- and four-chamber view (Foley et al., 2012).

Multivessel disease was defined when two or three vessels were affected in contrast to one vessel disease.