A FEI Quanta 3D dual beam (SEM/FIB) system was used to prepare pillars with the geometry of 1500 nm by 850 nm by 120 nm. In situ TEM compression tests were conducted at room temperature using a Hysitron picoindenter 95 equipped with a flat tip in a JEOL JEM-2800 TEM operating at 200 kV. The uniaxial compression tests were performed in displacement-controlled mode with an axial displacement rate of 3 nm s–1. A Gatan one-view charge-coupled device camera was used to record time-resolved TEM images of the regions of interest at 30 frames per second.