For all experimental results, the reconstructed images are 60 by 60 pixels, so we calibrated 602-point sources in our 980-μm-wide field of view for a single depth plane. The point sources are square-shaped with 16.3-μm width (square point source with 9.78-μm width is generated to acquire Figure 3I). We calibrated for 11 depth layers separated by 300 μm in depth for demonstration of volumetric imaging, which requires calibration of 11 × 602 point sources. In the present configuration, the lensless microendoscope demonstrates an axial resolution of approximately 300 μm as shown in figs. S2 and S3. In this particular experiment, the number of calibrated point sources was purely limited by the scanning speed of the digital micromirror device due to its limited scanning speed of 2 Hz.