All animal studies were conducted in compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and other federal statutes and regulations relating to animals and experiments involving animals and adheres to principles state in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, National Research Council (38). All animal experimental protocols were approved by a standing internal Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. The facilities where this research was conducted are fully accredited by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International. Animals meeting criteria were humanely euthanized.

All data and human participants research were previously de-identified and given a “research not involving human participants” determination by the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) Office of Human Use and Ethics log number FY18-28.