The field-emission SEM (JSM-7000F; JEOL, Tokyo, Japan)–based high-resolution SE-ADM system with the culture dish holder was enabled to observe intact living mammalian cells in media, which was shown in the previous report (15). The liquid-sample holder containing osteoblasts was mounted onto the SEM stage, and the detector terminal was connected to a preamplifier under the holder (44). The electrical signal from the preamplifier was fed into the analog-digital (AD) converter after low-pass filtering, as previously described (45). The Al holder was added to a voltage bias of −8 V. SEM images (1280 × 1020 pixels) were captured at ×3000 to ×50,000 magnification with a scanning time of 80 s with a working distance of 7 mm, an electron beam (EB) acceleration voltage of 4 to 10 kV, and a current of 10 pA.

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