Mouse Lmod2 cDNA was cloned into pEGFP-C2 vector (Clontech). The W405* mutation was introduced into GFP-Lmod2 via site-directed mutagenesis using the following primer sequences: 5′-GTCTCCCTGATCATCTCCCAAAGTCTCCAAGAAAG-3′ (forward) and 5′-GATGATCAGGGAGACTGTCTCGGAGATGCATATGG-3′ (reverse) (33). Adeno-associated virus expressing GFP-Lmod2 or GFP-Lmod2[W405*] was generated, and 1.25 × 1012 to 2.5 × 1012 genomic copies were injected into the pericardial cavity at postnatal day 4 as previously described (11). The Lmod2 null mice were on C57BL/6J background (stock no. 000664, the Jackson laboratory). Both males and females were injected and euthanized at a time point at which the null mice begin to die (postnatal day 16 to 18) (11).