Mice were individually placed in clean, ethanol-sterilized cages, and immediately upon defecation, each fecal pellet was placed in a sterile collection tube, snap frozen, and stored at −80°C. Whole blood was collected from anesthetized animals by cardiac puncture. Serum was isolated by centrifugation at 1500g × 15 min and stored at −80°C. Liver, spleen, and intestine were collected immediately after euthanasia. Each tissue was weighed, and colon length was measured before being placed in microcentrifuge tubes, snap frozen, and then stored at −80°C. Hematocrit was determined using a microhematocrit capillary tube reader. Whole colonic tissue was homogenized in cell lysis buffer, and protein concentration was determined using the Precision Red Protein Assay (Cytoskeleton). Samples were sent to Eve Technologies for analysis using their 32-multiplex Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Array.