hPSCs were purchased from ScienCell (Carlsbad, CA) and maintained in a special culture medium provided by the manufacturer, supplemented with 1% penicillin/streptomycin. The pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1) was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, MD) and cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (PAA, The Netherlands) supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS; 10%) and antibiotics (1% penicillin/streptomycin). To knock down ITGA5, hPSCs were transfected with custom-made lentiviral vector shRNA plasmids against ITGA5 (gene ID: 3678) under puromycin resistance (ATCGbio Life Technology Inc., Burnaby, Canada) using Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Breda, The Netherlands).