Cells were grown in LB (Roth) or in M9 minimal medium (50 mM Na2HPO4, 22 mM KH2PO4, 8.6 mM NaCl, 18.7 mM NH4Cl, 1 mM MgSO4, 0.1 mM CaCal2, and 0.0001% thiamine) supplemented with either 0.5% glucose or 0.4% glycerol when using strains carrying pBAD33 plasmid constructs. Cultures were grown in batch at 37°C shaking at 200 rpm. When required, the medium was supplemented with chloramphenicol (25 μg/ml), ampicillin (25 to 50 μg/ml), or kanamycin (50 μg/ml). Plasmids carrying the PBAD promoter were repressed in precultures by 0.4% d-(+)-glucose at OD600nm. The expression of gene constructs on plasmids carrying the PBAD promoter was induced with 0.2% l-(+)-arabinose at OD600nm of around 0.4. The expression of gene constructs on plasmids carrying Plac promoter was induced with 0.5 to 2 mM IPTG, 2 mM IPTG for pNDM220::hipB plasmid, and 1 mM IPTG for pNDM220 and pMG25 plasmid constructs with hipA and hipA7.