One hundred and forty-four participants who underwent colonoscopy at our hospital from January 2018 to June 2019 were enrolled in the study, and informed consent was signed by all participants. Patients were excluded if they had (1) known inflammatory bowel disease, Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, or other malignant diseases; or (2) the previous history of CRC, any chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Stool samples (0.5 g) were collected at least 1 day before bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Biopsies were performed for histological examination during colonoscopy. According to the results of colonoscopy and pathology outcomes, the participants were assigned into four groups, namely, Control group (n=50), HP (size < 10 mm) group (n=39), AD group (n=7), and CRC group (n=48). The clinical characteristics, including age, sex, tumor location, size, stage, differentiation degree, histology subtype, and pathological pattern were collected. The study conformed to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Institutional Review Board of our hospital.

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