ICR mice (purchased from Qinglongshan Animal Center, Nanjing, China) were used at 6-8 weeks of age; weighing 28-32 g. Mice were housed in individual cages and fed under a 12/12-hour light/dark cycle at 22 ± 2 °C and 50 ± 5% humidity. Regular laboratory diet and tap water were available ad libitum. All experiments and protocols were abided by the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Jinling Hospital.