The right femur from each mouse was dissected and fixed overnight in 10% neutral buffered formalin, loaded into 12.3 mm diameter scanning tubes, and imaged using a desk-top μCT scanner (SkyScan 1076, Bruker Micro CT). The scans were integrated into 3D voxel images and a region of interest (ROI) that consisted of 100 slices starting from about 0.5 mm proximal to growth plate, constituting 1.6 mm in length, was chosen for analysis. The following 3D indices in the defined ROI were analyzed, including total tissue volume, BV, BV/TV, Tb.N., Tb.Th., and Tb.Sp.