Parametric data are graphed as mean ± SEM and were analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 7.01. Nonparametric data are graphed as median with IQR. Multiple comparisons were achieved using 2-way ANOVA with appropriate multiple-comparisons test. Comparisons between 2 groups were made using an unpaired 2-tailed Mann-Whitney comparison or Student’s t test. For LGRC and TYLR data, R software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing) was used for data analysis. The R stats package version 3.4.3 was implemented. Results were reported as medians and IQRs (25% to 75%) unless otherwise specified. For the LGRC cohort, the P value for NTN1 represents probe-level statistics adjusted for multiple comparisons. Continuous variables were tested using nonparametric tests, including the Kruskal-Wallis test. Categorical variables were analyzed with Fisher’s exact test. Kaplan-Meier analysis determined survival associations. Multivariate Cox regression hazards ratio was used to model association with relevant covariates. P values of less than 0.05 after multiple-comparisons testing (where relevant) were considered statistically significant.