We analyzed complete motor task-based fMRI and T1 data of 1,080 subjects from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) database (21) in the present study. The data were acquired on a 3T Skyra scanner (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) using a 32-channel head coil. BOLD changes were examined in gradient-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with the following parameters: repetition time (TR) =720 ms; echo time (TE) =33.1 ms; flip angle =52°; field of view (FOV) =208×180 mm [readout (RO) × phase-encoding (PE)]; matrix =104×90 (RO × PE); slice thickness =2.0 mm; 72 slices; 2.0 mm isotropic voxels; multiband factor =8; echo spacing =0.58 ms; and bandwidth (BW) =2,290 Hz/pixel. T1 data were obtained in a magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo sequence with the following parameters: TR =2,400 ms; TE =2.14 ms; TI =1,000 ms; flip angle =8°; FOV =224×224; voxel size =0.7 mm isotropic; BW =210 (Hz/pixel); integrated parallel acquisition technique =2; and acquisition time =7:40 (min:s).

Details of the motor task-based fMRI data from the HCP database have been previously reported (22). Briefly, subjects were shown 3-s text cues instructing them to tap their fingers, squeeze their toes, or move their tongue to activate different motor brain regions. Ten movements for each motor task were executed for 12 s. Each subject participated in two runs of 13 motor tasks (two tasks each for tongue, right hand (RH), left hand (LH), right foot (RF), and left foot (LF); and three 15-s fixation tasks performed to obtain baseline measurements). Details of the language task-based fMRI data from the HCP database have been previously reported (23). Briefly, the task consists of two runs that each interleave 4 blocks of a story task and 4 blocks of a math task. Each task were executed for approximately 30 seconds, however, each task was designed in order that the math task blocks match the length of the story task blocks, with some additional math trials at the end of each task. The Story–Math protocol provides a reliable method for activation of the temporal lobe language regions of the left (LL) and right (RL) hemispheres. Two runs of each sequence were performed (Figure 1); the activation sequences from left to right hemisphere and from right to left hemisphere were defined as LtoR and RtoL, respectively. The study were approved by the Joint Ethics Committee of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union College.

Block diagram of experimental procedures and data analysis.