A total of 40 male rats were housed in a standard temperature room (22 ± 1°C) with a 12:12 h light-dark cycle. CCl4 was diluted with sesame oil (2:3, v/v) under sterile conditions. The rats in the AHF group were fed with diluted CCl4 at a dose of 4 mL/kg body weight13. Rats in the chloroquine (CQ) treatment group received intraperitoneal injection of CQ (30 mg/kg, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) once daily for 7 days before CCl4 exposure5. After treatment, the right liver lobes and posterior vena cava were taken for subsequent experiments at each of the following time points: 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h.