After consenting procedures, participants began the temporal memory task, composed of an encoding and a retrieval phase. During encoding, participants saw two lists of 50 objects each on a computer screen (i.e., List 1, List 2) separated by a 10-minute break. For each list, a fixation (+) appeared on the screen for 500 ms prior to each image, and then each image was presented for 2 s. Participants indicated if they would see each object at school by pressing either the left button for “Yes,” or the right button for “No” on a response box. After encoding, participants were fitted for an electrode cap, and application of the cap took about the same amount of time for the children and adults (M younger children = 21.38 min, M older children = 19.13 min, M adults=23.95  min). During retrieval, participants saw old objects (i.e., objects from Lists 1 and 2) and new objects (not from encoding) for 2 s each. A fixation (+) preceded each object, and the timing varied from 1,500−2,500 ms. Participants identified each object as being from List 1, List 2, or New using the response box, similar to Curran and Friedman (2003, 2004). After the temporal memory task, participants completed the Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence: Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011). At the end of the session, participants completed additional tasks outside the scope of this paper.

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