The sterilized scaffolds were placed in a 24-well plate under sterile conditions. Then, they were washed 3 times with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; Boster, pyg0021, Wuhan, China) and bathed in the α-MEM medium without FBS for 2 h before cells seeding. Then, 6 × 104 BMSCs were seeded into a 24-well plate in which a scaffold was ensconced. After the cells adhered to the scaffolds completely, the cell-seeded scaffolds were transferred to a new 24-well plate for further culture. Immediately after, these cell-scaffolds were randomly divided into two groups. The group treated with EMF was presented as the EMF group, while the group without any intervention was regarded as the control group (Ctrl group).