BMSC proliferation was assessed using Cell Counting Kit-8 assay (CCK-8, Dojindo, CK04, Japan) after culturing for 1, 3, and 5 days. At each time point, 2-ml CCK-8 working solution (diluted 1:9 in fresh culture medium) was added to each well, then they were incubated at 37 °C for 2 h. The absorbance of the resulting solution was measured at 450 nm using a microplate reader (Bio-Rad, USA). The viability of BMSCs cultured on scaffolds was assessed by a Live-dead kit (Thermo Fisher, L3224, USA). On the 1st and 3rd day of culture, the scaffolds were washed twice with PBS and enough working solution was added to submerge the scaffolds. After incubation in dark for 30 min, the specimens were rinsed with PBS and observed via a fluorescence microscope (EVOS FL Auto, Life Technologies, USA). The live cells staining green while dead cells staining red.