Clinical samples and plasma were obtained from the Tumor Bank of Columbia University Irving Medical Center, Biomarker Core of Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, and University of Massachusetts Medical School Conquering Diseases Biorepository. All samples were collected based on an institutional review board guideline. Forty-two histologically confirmed HNSCC samples from a Columbia HNSCC cohort were included in this study, with 80% tumor contact in each sample. The cohort demographics were the following: 26 males, 16 females; age, mean standard deviation (SD) of 64 (6.3) years. 55% of patients were stage I and II, and 45% were stage III and IV HNSCC. Plasma samples were obtained from 14 HNSCC patients and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The mean (SD) of the age of HNSCC was 62 (5.2) years, and the mean (SD) age of healthy controls was 60 (6.1). There were five females and nine males in each group.