The study was conducted towards southeastern direction approximately 250 km far away from Addis Ababa, in Kuyera district, West Arsi Zone, Ethiopia. It is approximately located between 38° 4' and 8° 32' E and 7° 3' and 2° 20' N (Figure 1) and extends over a latitudinal range from 1557 to 1650 m with the total area of 449.6 hectares. Andosol soil type covers about 52.2% while nitosols cover the remaining 47.8%. The main crops produced for consumption purpose and for income generation were potatoes, maize, sorghum (finger millet, Chiquere, Gebabe, and white seed color varieties), wheat, barley, and teff [19].

Map of the study area.