Seven hundred and twenty-eight (728) couples treated for infertility in two Czech fertility centers, Fertimed Ltd., Olomouc and Arleta IVF Ltd., Kostelec nad Orlici, were enrolled into the study from July 2013 to November 2016. These two Czech fertility centers operate in the same geographical region. Long-term monogamous couples who engaged in regular sexual activity with no barrier contraception, demonstrated no symptoms of HPV-associated disease, and received no prior vaccinations against HPV were included. Only 195 couples provided both semen samples and penile swabs from male partners as well as cervical swabs from female partners that were suitable for evaluation (Fig. 1).

Study flowchart