Home range of each echidna was mapped using R and ArcMap 10.8. The base map was provided by © State of New South Wales (Spatial Services, a business unit of the Department of Customer Service NSW) under the CC-BY 4.0 licence (spatial.nsw.gov.au). Home range of the echidnas was estimated by minimum convex polygon (MCP) analysis (95%) using the Minimum Bounding Geometry [8, 9]. The kernel function in R was used to further analyse home range. The fixed kernels used during this analysis were 50% and 95% of loci, which correspond to ‘core area’ and ‘peripheral area.’ The smoothing factor of the kernel was adjusted so that the area of the 95% kernel was approximately equal to the area of the MCP, although this was not possible when echidnas appeared to leave their home range [13].