Exclusion criteria
Metabolic complications of childhood obesity
J Family Med Prim Care, Jul 2, 2021; DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_975_20

<5 years and >12 years

Children with syndromic obesity, chronic diseases like rheumatological and endocrinal disorders, renal failure, musculoskeletal disease, and use of medicines affecting bone such as steroids and anticonvulsant drugs.

Calcium and vitamin D supplements in the last 6 months.

Refusal to give consent.

Normal weight children attending immunization clinic and pediatric OPD for other ailments like upper respiratory tract infection (URI) were enrolled as controls.

Anthropometric evaluation of the study participants was carried out in the growth laboratory of the institute using standardized instruments and techniques.[7]

The record of blood investigations was done in obese children as a part of clinical care and recorded in proforma and no special blood investigation was carried out in normal-weight children. Standard pediatric reference intervals for the laboratory investigations were taken to define abnormal lab results.[8]

The study was conducted after obtaining ethical clearance from the ethical committee of the institute. Informed consent was obtained from the parents of the participants and assent was obtained from the participants.

All the data were coded and entered in the excel sheet for analysis. This excel sheet was exported to the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and proper labeling and attributes were added. All analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows (Version 23.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Comparisons of means were done with t-tests and Mann–Whitney tests for variables with normal and skewed distribution, respectively. Correlations were done with the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient for variables with normal and skewed distribution, respectively.