HES collects data for all hospital admissions, outpatient appointments and accident and emergency attendances for all NHS hospitals in England. HES data were extracted for the same study period as NHFA data. Index admissions for heart failure were identified using International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 recorded in the primary position. HES data are more complete, since they included patients from hospitals not include in the above NHFA dataset, and were used to calculate the daily rate of admissions for heart failure.