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A literature search was performed on August 5, 2020, in PubMed and EMBASE with predefined search terms (Appendix 1), including all studies mentioning recurrence rates in Dutch, German, Arabic, and English. The search was limited to studies between 2000 and 2020 to give insight into definition of recurrence in the most recent literature. The inclusion criteria included studies assessing recurrence rates after arthroscopic anterior shoulder instability surgery. Letters to the editors, instructional courses, animal/cadaver/in vitro studies, conference papers, and studies published in journals with an impact factor <1 at the time of the literature search were excluded. Studies wherein the definition of recurrence was not explicitly defined were excluded. First, the studies were selected on title and abstract using the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria by 2 authors (H.A. and J.W.C.) independently. Hereafter full-texts were screened and studies were cross-referenced to search for additional studies. Disagreement was resolved by discussion. Agreement between the 2 observers was assessed using Cohen’s kappa, which is a scale of agreement ranging from 0 to 1. A kappa 0.21 to 0.40 corresponds with fair agreement, 0.41 to 0.60 with moderate agreement, 0.61 to 0.80 with substantial agreement, 0.81 to 0.99 with near-perfect agreement, and 1.00 with perfect agreement.

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