Subjects were recruited from DAISY, which is an ongoing prospective birth cohort study following genetically at-risk individuals for development of islet Aabs and clinical T1D (32). Written informed consent was obtained from each participant and guardian when the participant was less than 18 y of age, and the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board approved the study. Study visits occurred every 6 to 12 mo to collect peripheral blood for islet Aab measurements and ELISPOT assays. Additionally, glucose measurements were performed in the Aab+ cohort.