After noting previous abuse history, medical status, and clinical examination, patients were categorized into groups based on snuff dipping. Self-reported SD were using snuff (Naswar) twice daily for more than 12 months without any mucosal lesions and systematic disease. The self-reported SD group participants had an intact oral mucosa i.e., without premalignant and frank malignant lesions. Self-reported NSD were individuals who did not habitually use snuff in the last 12 months (control subjects). Excluded individuals included patients with a history of abuse except for snuff, chronic periodontitis, alcoholics, workers associated with occupational hazards, and those with incomplete consent forms. In addition, patients with a history of oral lesions, pathological dry mouth syndrome or medications such as antihistamines, antihypertensives, anticholinergics, antidepressants, and bronchodilators were also excluded from the study due to a hindrance in the ability to collect sufficient unstimulated saliva samples.

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