Data were analyzed using a statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 23, Chicago, IL, USA). For categorical variables, frequencies and percentages were computed. Quantitative variables were measured and compared using means and standard deviations. An independent sample t-test was applied to compare the mean difference among the study groups in terms of TNF-α and micronuclei. Pearson correlation was employed to compare the difference between snuff and non-snuff users regarding age and duration of snuff use and considering p ≤ 0.05 as significant.