2.8. Determination of Ulcer Index

The studies were conducted in male albino rats with body weights in the range of 160–240 g and approved by the Institutional Review Board for Animal Research/Studies Animals (Approval No.11-03-2021). The study animals were obtained from the animal house of the Beni Suef Center for Clinical Laboratory in Beni Suef, Egypt. Three animals were assigned for each MX-PO-SNEDDS formulation for the determination of the ulcer index. A 15-day treatment was performed on each animal with the MX-PO-SNEDDS formulation. On day 16, macroscopic examination of the excised stomach was conducted for observing hemorrhagic lesions [19]. The number of ulcers in a unit area was also determined to assess the severity microscopically. The following scores were assigned to determine the ulcer index: a score of 0.5 for a normal-colored stomach lining; 1 for red coloration of the lining; 2 for spot ulcerations; 3 for hemorrhagic streaks; 4 for ulcers between 3–5 mm in diameter; 5 for ulcers greater than 5 mm; and 6 for ulcers with perforations. For comparison, the ulcer index was also determined for the optimized formula.