1 Q&A 2434 Views Aug 20, 2021

Recently, we developed transcription/translation coupled with the association of puromycin linker (TRAP) display as a quick in vitro selection method to obtain antibody-like proteins. For the in vitro selection, it is important to prepare mRNA libraries among which the diversity is high. Here, we describe a method for the preparation of monobody mRNA libraries with greater than 1013 theoretical diversity. First, we synthesized two long single-stranded DNAs that corresponded to fragments of monobody DNA, with random codons in the BC and FG loops. These oligonucleotides were ligated by T4 DNA ligase with the support of guide oligonucleotides containing 3′ ends that were protected by a modification. After amplifying the product DNAs by PCR, one end of each DNA fragment was digested with the type II restriction enzyme BsaI, and the resulting DNA fragments were ligated using T4 DNA ligase. After amplification of the DNA product, mRNAs were synthesized by T7 RNA polymerase. This method is simple and could be used for the preparation of mRNA libraries for various antibody-like proteins.

Graphic abstract:

Construction of a highly diverse mRNA library.

0 Q&A 10054 Views Jan 5, 2018
This protocol analyzes the direct interaction between two DNA-binding proteins by pull-down co-immunoprecipitation. One of the proteins is overexpressed in E. coli as HA-tagged recombinant protein and cell-free extracts are immunoprecipitated in HA-affinity resin. Cell extracts are treated with nuclease to degrade DNA and RNA, which rules out nucleic acid-mediated indirect interaction. Then, a second immunoprecipitation step is performed using the purified putative partner protein. Co-immunoprecipitated proteins can be detected either by Coomassie Blue staining and/or Western blotting (WB) if a specific antibody is available. Moreover, many DNA/RNA binding proteins are highly electropositive, which can hinder WB under standard conditions, as has been shown in histones and histone-like proteins. In this case, we show that the high isoelectric point of the putative partner results in a poor transfer. Tips to troubleshot WB transfer of highly electropositive DNA-binding proteins are provided.
0 Q&A 6425 Views Mar 20, 2017
Highly regulated and targeted protein degradation plays a fundamental role in almost all cellular processes. Determination of the protein half-life by the chase assay serves as a powerful and popular strategy to compare the protein stability and study proteolysis pathways in cells. Here, we describe a chase assay in Haloferax volcanii, a halophilic archaeon as the model organism.
0 Q&A 6733 Views Oct 5, 2015
Analysis of the functional activity in polyclonal serum following immunization of a complex protein or glycoprotein immunogen is a very important but tedious process. Fine mapping of epitope-specific antibodies is difficult when they are elicited at relatively low levels. In our recent study focused on developing an HIV-1 vaccine, we immunized rabbits with hyperglycosylated stable core immunogens, which were designed using high-resolution structural information to elicit antibodies against the primary receptor-binding, CD4-binding site on HIV-1 gp120. Using a solid phase adsorption assay, we could map the serum antibodies to the conserved CD4-binding site, a known broadly neutralizing determinant on exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120.
0 Q&A 24623 Views Jun 5, 2014
In order to prepare protein extracts of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages for western blot analysis, infected red blood cells (iRBC) need to be separated from uninfected red blood cells (uRBC) which make up the bulk of the parasite culture. Depending on the localisation of the parasite protein of interest, different methods are available to achieve this. If the protein is present within the parasite or is attached to a cellular structure of the iRBC cell, saponin can be used. This reagent lyses the membranes of infected and uninfected erythrocytes, the Maurer´s clefts (vesicular structures in the iRBC) and the parasitophorous vacuole membrane containing the parasite but leaves the parasite plasma membrane intact, providing a convenient procedure to isolate intact parasites without uRBCs. However, this method has the disadvantage that the host cell cytosol and the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) content of iRBCs are lost. If this has to be avoided, it is possible to use a Percoll gradient to separate intact iRBCs from uRBCs. Sequential treatment with Tetanolysin and saponin can then be used to selectively release the iRBC cytosol and the PV content from the parasite. These selective lysis methods are also suitable to determine the subcellular localisation of a protein of interest.
0 Q&A 12510 Views Mar 20, 2014
Staphylococcus aureus has a quorum sensing system to regulate the expression of various virulence factors, which is exerted by the agr locus that encodes agrBDCA and a regulatory RNA called RNAIII. AgrB, AgrD, and AgrC proteins are involved in producing and recognizing extracellular quorum sensing molecules and transduce the signal by altering the phosphorylation status of AgrA, which is a positive transcription factor, to regulate cytolysin genes as well as the RNAIII gene. RNAIII regulates the expression of various virulence genes. Expression of the agr locus has been examined in depth at the transcriptional level, but investigations of translational expression are limited, because immunoglobulin G used to detect a specific protein highly reacts to S. aureus protein A. Here, we report a method to detect AgrA that is the transcription factor encoded by the agr regulatory system. Although this is a specific protocol for western blotting of S. aureus AgrA protein, it can also be used for other S. aureus proteins by using the appropriate antibody.
0 Q&A 9654 Views Mar 5, 2014
Co-immunoprecipitation assay of TLR3-Flag or Myc-MSR1 with HCV RNA is used to identify direct interaction of viral RNA with host proteins that recognize viral RNA to initiate interferon (IFN) signaling, a crucial antiviral response of the host cells. Both Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and class-A scavenger receptor type 1 (MSR1) proteins recognize viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) which may be released into the extracellular milieu or spread from HCV-infected cells to uninfected neighbor cells via cell-to-cell contact, resulting in IFN-β activation that restricts viral propagation. We have found that MSR1 binds extracellular dsRNA, mediating its endocytosis and transport toward the endosome where it is engaged by TLR3, thereby triggering IFN responses in both infected and uninfected cells. We used this assay to demonstrate the pivotal role of MSR1 in mediating TLR3-recognition of the HCV RNA. The assay described in this protocol is based on the conventional protein immunoprecipitation protocol with conditioned buffers that prevent nonspecific RNA degradation by RNase present in the lysate. RNA molecules associated with the Flag-tagged protein were trapped by a specific antibody followed by Protein G capture, extracted and detected quantitatively by RT-PCR assay, followed by agarose-gel electrophoresis for visualization. This method can also be applied to detection of other protein-RNA interactions.
0 Q&A 10255 Views Mar 5, 2014
Upon rupture of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) schizonts in vitro (an event known as egress), merozoites are released into the culture medium. The merozoites invade fresh red blood cells, a process that involves shedding of a microneme protein called apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) from the merozoite surface. This shedding, which takes place even in the absence of invasion, is therefore a surrogate marker for the degree of egress taking place in a culture, and can be measured using a specific capture ELISA to quantify AMA1 levels in culture supernatants (Collins et al., 2013). The assay uses a monoclonal antibody specific for AMA1 (called 4G2dc1) (Kocken et al., 1998; Collins et al., 2009) to capture and immobilize the protein from culture supernatants, then uses a specific rabbit polyclonal antiserum to detect the immobilized antigen. A phosphatase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibody is finally used to quantify the binding of the second antibody. Egress is absolutely dependent upon the activity of a parasite cGMP-dependent protein kinase, PKG, and so is influenced by levels of intracellular cGMP (Collins et al., 2013). This is regulated by the interplay between guanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases. The latter enzymes may also degrade cAMP, so it may also be informative to measure intracellular cAMP levels.
1 Q&A 10247 Views Nov 20, 2013
Shigella uses a type III secretion system to invade host cell and to cause disease. Secretion control and insertion of a translocation pore into cell membrane are critical steps for pathogenesis and are tightly linked to the formation of the needle tip complex formed by the IpaB and IpaD proteins (Veenendaal et al., 2007). Surface localizations of IpaD and IpaB were monitored by FACS analysis according to the localization protocol for Pseudomonas aeruginosa homolog PcrV (Lee et al., 2010).
0 Q&A 8937 Views Oct 20, 2013
Posttranslational modifications of histones are required for different processes including transcription, replication and DNA damage repair. This protocol describes the preparation of a whole-cell extracts for the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Furthermore, the extract is used to detect lysine acetylation of histone H4 as well as serine 129 phosphorylation of histone H2A by immunoblot analysis.