免疫学


分类

现刊
往期刊物
0 Q&A 447 Views Jan 5, 2024

γδ T cells play a critical role in homeostasis and diseases such as infectious diseases and tumors in both mice and humans. They can be categorized into two main functional subsets: IFN-γ-producing γδT1 cells and IL-17-producing γδT17 cells. While CD27 expression segregates these two subsets in mice, little is known about human γδT17 cell differentiation and expansion. Previous studies have identified γδT17 cells in human skin and mucosal tissues, including the oral cavity and colon. However, human γδ T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) primarily produce IFN-γ. In this protocol, we describe a method for in vitro expansion and polarization of human γδT17 cells from PBMCs.


Key Features

• Expansion of γδ T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

• Human IL-17A-producing γδ T-cell differentiation and expansion using IL-7 and anti-γδTCR.

• Analysis of IL-17A production post γδ T-cell expansion.

0 Q&A 454 Views Nov 5, 2023

Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTEC) are bona fide antigen-presenting cells that play a crucial role in the induction of T-cell tolerance. By their unique ability to express a broad range of tissue-restricted self-antigens, mTEC control the clonal deletion (also known as negative selection) of potentially hazardous autoreactive T cells and the generation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Here, we describe a protocol to assess major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen-presentation capacity of mTEC to CD4+ T cells. We detail the different steps of thymus enzymatic digestion, immunostaining, cell sorting of mTEC and CD4+ T cells, peptide-loading of mTEC, and the co-culture between these two cell types. Finally, we describe the flow cytometry protocol and the subsequent analysis to assess the activation of CD4+ T cells. This rapid co-culture assay enables the evaluation of the ability of mTEC to present antigens to CD4+ T cells in an antigen-specific context.


Key features

• This protocol builds upon the method used by Lopes et al. (2018 and 2022) and Charaix et al. (2022).

• This protocol requires transgenic mice, such as OTIIxRag2-/- mice and the cognate peptide OVA323–339, to assess mTEC antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells.

• This requires specific equipment such as a Miltenyi Biotec AutoMACS® Pro Separator, a BD FACSAriaTM III cell sorter, and a BD® LSR II flow cytometer.


Graphical overview


0 Q&A 578 Views Sep 20, 2023

Immune cell trafficking in steady-state conditions and inflammatory cell recruitment into injured tissues is crucial for the surveillance of the immune system and the maintenance of body homeostasis. Tracking the cell journey from the infection site in the skin to lymphoid tissues has been challenging, and is typically determined using fluorescent cell tracers, antibodies, or photoconvertible models. Here, we describe the detailed method to track Leishmania-infected myeloid cells migrating from the skin to lymphatic tissues by multiparametric flow cytometry. These methods involve labeling of infective Leishmania donovani parasites with fluorescent cell tracers and phenotyping of myeloid cells with fluorescent antibodies, to determine the infection status of migratory myeloid cells. We also describe the detailed protocol to trace donor monocytes transferred intradermally into recipient mice in Leishmania donovani infection. These protocols can be adapted to study skin-lymphoid tissue migration of dendritic cells, inflammatory monocytes, neutrophils, and other phagocytic myeloid cells in response to vaccine antigens and infection.


Key features

• Cell-tracking of cell-trace-labeled parasites and monocytes from the skin to lymphatic tissues after transference into donor mice.

• Identification of migratory cells labeled with fluorescent cell tracers and antibodies by flow cytometry.

• Isolation, labeling, and transference of bone marrow monocytes from donor mice into the skin of recipient mice.

• Description of a double-staining technique with fluorescent cell tracers to determine cell and parasite dissemination from the skin to lymphoid tissues.



Graphical overview



Overview of the methods to trace the migration of Leishmania and monocytes from the skin to lymphatic tissues by flow cytometry. Infective metacyclic promastigotes (from axenic culture) and monocytes (isolated from the bone marrow of donor mice) are labeled with fluorescent cell tracers. After intradermal injection into the test mouse (1, 2), migratory cells and infected cells are isolated from the skin and lymphoid tissues of the test mouse. These cells are then labeled with fluorescent antibodies against myeloid cells and recognized according to the differential excitation/emission wavelengths of the fluorochromes by flow cytometry.

0 Q&A 656 Views Sep 20, 2023

During life, the embryonic alveolar macrophage (AM) population undergoes successive waves of depletion and replenishment in response to infectious and inflammatory episodes. While resident AMs are traditionally described as from embryonic origin, their ontogeny following inflammation or infection is much more complex. Indeed, it appears that the contribution of monocytes (MOs) to the AM pool is variable and depends on the type of inflammation, its severity, and the signals released in the microenvironment of the pulmonary niche (peripheral imprinting) and/or in the bone marrow (central imprinting). Deciphering the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the differentiation of MOs into AMs remains an area of intense investigation, as this could potentially explain part of the inter-individual susceptibility to respiratory immunopathologies. Here, we detail a relevant ex vivo co-culture model to investigate how lung epithelial cells (ECs) and group 2 lung innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) contribute to the differentiation of recruited MOs into AMs. Interestingly, the presence of lung ILC2s and ECs provides the necessary niche signals to ensure the differentiation of bone marrow MOs into AMs, thus establishing an accessible model to study the underlying mechanisms following different infection or inflammation processes.


Key features

• Ex vivo co-culture model of the alveolar niche.

• Deciphering the particular niche signals underlying the differentiation of MO into AMs and their functional polarization.


Graphical overview
This protocol described the isolation of bone marrow monocytes (MOs), lung epithelial cells (ECs), and lung group 2 lung innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the ex vivo co-culture of these cells to drive the differentiation of bone marrow MOs into alveolar macrophages (AMs).




This co-culture experiment is composed of three steps (Graphical overview):
1. Identification and FACS-sorting of ECs and MOs isolated from the lung and the bone marrow of naive mice, respectively.
2. Culture of these ECs and bone marrow MOs for three days.
3. Addition of ILC2s isolated from the lung of naïve mice or mice subjected to a treatment/infection of interest.

0 Q&A 868 Views Dec 5, 2022

Macrophages are a heterogeneous class of innate immune cells that offer a primary line of defense to the body by phagocytizing pathogens, digesting them, and presenting the antigens to T and B cells to initiate adaptive immunity. Through specialized pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory activities, macrophages also directly contribute to the clearance of infections and the repair of tissue injury. Macrophages are distributed throughout the body and largely carry out tissue-specific functions. In skeletal muscle, macrophages regulate tissue repair and regeneration; however, the characteristics of these macrophages are not yet fully understood, and their involvement in skeletal muscle aging remains to be elucidated. To investigate these functions, it is critical to efficiently isolate macrophages from skeletal muscle with sufficient purity and yield for various downstream analyses. However, methods to prepare enriched skeletal muscle macrophages are scarce. Here, we describe in detail an optimized method to isolate skeletal muscle macrophages from mice. This method has allowed the isolation of CD45+/CD11b+ macrophage-enriched cells from young and old mice, which can be further used for flow cytometric analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and single-cell RNA sequencing.

0 Q&A 1293 Views Jun 5, 2022

During adaptive immune responses, germinal centers (GC) appear as transient microstructures, in which antigen-specific B and T cells interact with each other. Because only the antigen-activated B and T cells, such as Plasmablasts or follicular T helper (Tfh) cells, are present in GC, the in depth-analysis of GC is of great interest. To identify the cells that reside within GC, the majority of studies use the expression of specific surface molecules for analysis by flow cytometry. To do so, the tissue has to be disrupted for the preparation of single-cell suspensions. Thereby, the local information regarding neighborhoods of B cells and T cells and their potential interaction is lost. To study GC in vivo within their original microenvironment, we established a protocol for the isolation of GC by laser microdissection. To enable the identification of GC for subsequent transcriptomic analysis, the degradation of mRNA was diminished by using frozen tissues and by establishing a rapid staining protocol. This procedure enables histological and transcriptomic analysis of individual GC even within one lymphoid organ.

0 Q&A 2456 Views Feb 20, 2022

When the body mounts an immune response against a foreign pathogen, the adaptive arm of the immune system relies upon clonal expansion of antigen-specific T cell populations to exercise acquired effector and cytotoxic functions to clear it. However, T cell expansion must be modulated to effectively combat the perceived threat without inducing excessive collateral damage to host tissues. Restimulation-induced cell death (RICD) is an apoptotic program triggered in activated T cells when an abundance of antigen and IL-2 are present, imposing a negative feedback mechanism that constrains the growing T cell population. This autoregulatory process can be detected via increases in caspase activation, Annexin V binding, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. However, simple changes in T cell viability through flow cytometric analysis can reliably measure RICD sensitivity in response to T-cell receptor (TCR) restimulation. This protocol describes the in vitro polyclonal activation, expansion, and restimulation of human primary T cells isolated from donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This simple procedure allows for accurate quantification of RICD via flow cytometry. We also describe strategies for interrogating the role of specific proteins and pathways that may alter RICD sensitivity. This straightforward protocol provides a quick and dependable tool to track RICD sensitivity in culture over time while probing critical factors that control the magnitude and longevity of an adaptive immune response.


Graphic abstract:



In-vitro simulation of restimulation-induced cell death in activated human T cells.


0 Q&A 2279 Views Feb 5, 2022

Extracellular microvesicles (MVs) are released into the circulation in large numbers during acute systemic inflammation, yet little is known of their intravascular cell/tissue-specific interactions under these conditions. We recently described a dramatic increase in the uptake of intravenously injected MVs by monocytes marginated within the pulmonary vasculature, in a mouse model of low-dose lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation. To investigate the mechanisms of enhanced MV uptake by monocytes, we developed an in vitro model using in vivo derived monocytes. Although mouse blood is a convenient source, monocyte numbers are too low for in vitro experimentation. In contrast, differentiated bone marrow monocytes are abundant, but they are rapidly mobilized during systemic inflammation, and thus no longer available. Instead, we developed a protocol using marginated monocytes from the pulmonary vasculature as an anatomically relevant and abundant source. Mice are sacrificed by terminal anesthesia, the lungs inflated and perfused via the pulmonary artery. Perfusate cell populations are evaluated by flow cytometry, combined with in vitro generated fluorescently labelled MVs, and incubated in suspension for up to one hour. Washed cells are analyzed by flow cytometry to quantify MV uptake and confocal microscopy to localize MVs within cells (O'Dea et al., 2020). Using this perfusion-based method, substantial numbers of marginated pulmonary vascular monocytes are recovered, allowing multiple in vitro tests to be performed from a single mouse donor. As MV uptake profiles were comparable to those observed in vivo, this method is suitable for physiologically relevant high throughput mechanistic studies on mouse monocytes under in vitro conditions.


Graphic abstract:



Figure 1. Schematic of lung perfusate cell harvest and co-incubation with in vitro generated MVs. Created with BioRender.com.


0 Q&A 2643 Views Oct 5, 2021

Neutrophil-derived microvesicles (NDMVs) are liberated by neutrophils upon cell activation by molecules. Once activated, neutrophils are primarily involved in acute inflammation; however, the microvesicles they produce are largely anti-inflammatory. NDMVs have been shown to protect cartilage during inflammatory arthritis. They exert these effects by inhibiting or affecting the function of target cells, including macrophages. NDMVs have the potential to act as disease-modifying agents, especially for inflammatory diseases. This protocol describes a method using differential centrifugation to separate neutrophils from whole human blood. Subsequently, neutrophils are identified by cytospin and Wright’s staining, and then the NDMVs are isolated using differential centrifugation.

0 Q&A 2940 Views Sep 5, 2021

The skin plays an important role in protecting the body from pathogens and chemicals in the external environment. Upon injury, a healing program is rapidly initiated and involves extensive intercellular communication to restore tissue homeostasis. The deregulation of this crosstalk can lead to abnormal healing processes and is the foundation of many skin diseases. A relatively overlooked cell type that nevertheless plays critical roles in skin homeostasis, wound repair, and disease is the dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs), which are also called γδT-cells. Given their varied roles in both physiological and pathological scenarios, interest in the regulation and function of DETCs has substantially increased. Moreover, their ability to regulate other immune cells has garnered substantial attention for their potential role as immunomodulators and in immunotherapies. In this article, we describe a protocol to isolate and culture DETCs and analyse them in vivo within the skin. These approaches will facilitate the investigation of their crosstalk with other cutaneous cells and the mechanisms by which they influence the status of the skin.



Graphic abstract:



Overall workflow to analyse DETCs in vitro and in vivo.