微生物学


分类

现刊
往期刊物
0 Q&A 285 Views Apr 5, 2024

Periodontal disease is characterized by the destruction of the hard and soft tissues comprising the periodontium. This destruction translates to a degradation of the extracellular matrices (ECM), mediated by bacterial proteases, host-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and other proteases released by host tissues and immune cells. Bacterial pathogens interact with host tissue, triggering adverse cellular functions, including a heightened immune response, tissue destruction, and tissue migration. The oral spirochete Treponema denticola is highly associated with periodontal disease. Dentilisin, a T. denticola outer membrane protein complex, contributes to the chronic activation of pro-MMP-2 in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and triggers increased expression levels of activators and effectors of active MMP-2 in PDL cells. Despite these advances, no mechanism for dentilisin-induced MMP-2 activation or PDL cytopathic behaviors leading to disease is known. Here, we describe a method for purification of large amounts of the dentilisin protease complex from T. denticola and demonstrate its ability to activate MMP-2, a key regulator of periodontal tissue homeostasis. The T. denticola dentilisin and MMP-2 activation model presented here may provide new insights into the dentilisin protein and identify potential therapeutic targets for further research.

0 Q&A 311 Views Mar 5, 2024

The genome of the dengue virus codes for a single polypeptide that yields three structural and seven non-structural (NS) proteins upon post-translational modifications. Among them, NS protein-3 (NS3) possesses protease activity, involved in the processing of the self-polypeptide and in the cleavage of host proteins. Identification and analysis of such host proteins as substrates of this protease facilitate the development of specific drugs. In vitro cleavage analysis has been applied, which requires homogeneously purified components. However, the expression and purification of both S3 and erythroid differentiation regulatory factor 1 (EDRF1) are difficult and unsuccessful on many occasions. EDRF1 was identified as an interacting protein of dengue virus protease (NS3). The amino acid sequence analysis indicates the presence of NS3 cleavage sites in this protein. As EDRF1 is a high-molecular-weight (~138 kDa) protein, it is difficult to express and purify the complete protein. In this protocol, we clone the domain of the EDRF1 protein (C-terminal end) containing the cleavage site and the NS3 into two different eukaryotic expression vectors containing different tags. These recombinant vectors are co-transfected into mammalian cells. The cell lysate is subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by western blotting with anti-tag antibodies. Data suggest the disappearance of the EDRF1 band in the lane co-transfected along with NS3 protease but present in the lane transfected with only EDRF1, suggesting EDRF1 as a novel substrate of NS3 protease. This protocol is useful in identifying the substrates of viral-encoded proteases using ex vivo conditions. Further, this protocol can be used to screen anti-protease molecules.


Key features

• This protocol requires the cloning of protease and substrate into two different eukaryotic expression vectors with different tags.

• Involves the transfection and co-transfection of both the above recombinant vectors individually and together.

• Involves western blotting of the same PVDF membrane containing total proteins of the cell lysate with two different antibodies.

• Does not require purified proteins for the analysis of cleavage of any suspected substrate by the protease.


Graphical overview


0 Q&A 300 Views Mar 5, 2024

Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved to be adept at manipulating host cellular function for the benefit of the pathogen, often by means of secreted virulence factors that target host pathways for modulation. The lysosomal pathway is an essential cellular response pathway to intracellular pathogens and, as such, represents a common target for bacterial-mediated evasion. Here, we describe a method to quantitatively assess bacterial pathogen–mediated suppression of host cell trafficking to lysosomes, using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection of epithelial cells as a model. This live-cell imaging assay involves the use of a BODIPY TR-X conjugate of BSA (DQ-Red BSA) that traffics to and fluoresces in functional lysosomes. This method can be adapted to study infection with a broad array of pathogens in diverse host cell types. It is capable of being applied to identify secreted virulence factors responsible for a phenotype of interest as well as domains within the bacterial protein that are important for mediating the phenotype. Collectively, these tools can provide invaluable insight into the mechanisms of pathogenesis of a diverse array of pathogenic bacteria, with the potential to uncover virulence factors that may be suitable targets for therapeutic intervention.


Key features

• Infection-based analysis of bacterial-mediated suppression of host trafficking to lysosomes, using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection of human epithelial cells as a model.

• Live microscopy–based analysis allows for the visualization of individually infected host cells and is amenable to phenotype quantification.

• Assay can be adapted to a broad array of pathogens and diverse host cell types.

• Assay can identify virulence factors mediating a phenotype and protein domains that mediate a phenotype.

0 Q&A 939 Views Dec 20, 2023

Advanced immunoassays are crucial in assessing antibody responses, serving immune surveillance goals, characterising immunological responses to evolving viral variants, and guiding subsequent vaccination initiatives. This protocol outlines an indirect ELISA protocol to detect and quantify virus-specific antibodies in plasma or serum after exposure to viral antigens. The assay enables the measurement of IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies specific to the virus of interest, providing qualitative and quantitative optical densities and concentration data. Although this protocol refers to SARS-CoV-2, its methodology is versatile and can be modified to assess antibody responses for various viral infections and to evaluate vaccine trial outcomes.


Key features

• This protocol builds upon previously described methodology [1] explicitly tailored for SARS-CoV-2 and broadens its applicability to other viral infections.

• The protocol outlines establishing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 infections by determining optical densities and concentrations from blood plasma or serum.


Graphical overview




Summary of the conventional ELISA (A) vs. sensitive ELISA (B) procedures. In both A and B, wells are coated with a capture antigen, such as the spike protein, while in (C) they are coated with human Kappa and Lambda capture antibodies. For the conventional ELISA (A), wells with immobilised capture antigens receive serum/plasma containing the target antibody (A1 and B1). This is followed by an HRP-conjugated detection antibody specific to the captured antibody (A2 and B2) and then a substrate solution that reacts with the HRP, producing a colour proportional to the concentration of the antibody in the serum/plasma (A3 and B3). The reaction is halted, and absorbance is measured. In the sensitive ELISA (B), after the serum/plasma addition (A1 and B1), a Biotin-conjugated primary detection antibody is introduced (A2 and B2). Depending on the target antibody, a secondary streptavidin-HRP conjugated detection antibody is added for IgG or IgM (3a) or a poly-HRP 40 detection antibody for IgA (3b). A substrate is introduced, producing a colour change proportional to the antibody concentration (A4 and B4). The reaction is then stopped, and absorbance is measured. In Panel C, wells are coated with human Kappa and Lambda capture antibodies. Serial dilutions of a known antibody standard are introduced. After undergoing the standard ELISA steps, a detection antibody is added, specifically binding to the Ig standard antibody. Subsequently, a substrate solution causes a colour change proportional to the antibody concentration in the serum/plasma. The reaction is halted, and the absorbance of each well is measured. The resulting optical densities from the coated wells form the standard curve, plotting the absorbance against concentrations.

0 Q&A 440 Views Sep 5, 2023

Magnaporthe oryzae is a filamentous fungus responsible for the detrimental rice blast disease afflicting rice crops worldwide. For years, M. oryzae has served as an excellent model organism to study plant pathogen interactions due to its sequenced genome, its amenability to functional genetics, and its capacity to be tracked in laboratory settings. As such, techniques to genetically manipulate M. oryzae for gene deletion range from genome editing via CRISPR-Cas9 to gene replacement through homologous recombination. This protocol focuses on detailing how to perform gene replacement in the model organism, M. oryzae, through a split marker method. This technique relies on replacing the open reading frame of a gene of interest with a gene conferring resistance to a specific selectable chemical, disrupting the transcription of the gene of interest and generating a knockout mutant M. oryzae strain.


Key features

• Comprehensive overview of primer design, PEG-mediated protoplast transformation, and fungal DNA extraction for screening.


Graphical overview


0 Q&A 434 Views Dec 20, 2022

Periodontal disease is a chronic multifactorial disease triggered by a complex of bacterial species. These interact with host tissues to cause the release of a broad array of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and tissue remodelers, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which lead to the destruction of periodontal tissues. Patients with severe forms of periodontitis are left with a persistent pro-inflammatory transcriptional profile throughout the periodontium, even after clinical intervention, leading to the destruction of teeth-supporting tissues. The oral spirochete, Treponema denticola , is consistently found at significantly elevated levels at sites with advanced periodontal disease. Of all T. denticola virulence factors that have been described, its chymotrypsin-like protease complex, also called dentilisin, has demonstrated a multitude of cytopathic effects consistent with periodontal disease pathogenesis, including alterations in cellular adhesion activity, degradation of various endogenous extracellular matrix–substrates, degradation of host chemokines and cytokines, and ectopic activation of host MMPs. Thus, the following model of T. denticola –human periodontal ligament cell interactions may provide new knowledge about the mechanisms that drive the chronicity of periodontal disease at the protein, transcriptional, and epigenetic levels, which could afford new putative therapeutic targets.

0 Q&A 562 Views Dec 5, 2022

Pathogen invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) is an important cause of infection-related mortality worldwide and can lead to severe neurological sequelae. To gain access to the CNS cells, pathogens have to overcome the blood–brain barrier (BBB), a protective fence from blood-borne factors. To study host–pathogen interactions, a number of cell culture and animal models were developed. However, in vitro models do not recapitulate the 3D architecture of the BBB and CNS tissue, and in vivo mammalian models present cellular and technical complexities as well as ethical issues, rendering systematic and genetic approaches difficult. Here, we present a two-pronged methodology allowing and validating the use of Drosophila larvae as a model system to decipher the mechanisms of infection in a developing CNS. First, an ex vivo protocol based on whole CNS explants serves as a fast and versatile screening platform, permitting the investigation of molecular and cellular mechanisms contributing to the crossing of the BBB and consequences of infection on the CNS. Then, an in vivo CNS infection protocol through direct pathogen microinjection into the fly circulatory system evaluates the impact of systemic parameters, including the contribution of circulating immune cells to CNS infection, and assesses infection pathogenicity at the whole host level. These combined complementary approaches identify mechanisms of BBB crossing and responses of a diversity of CNS cells contributing to infection, as well as novel virulence factors of the pathogen.


Graphical abstract



Procedures flowchart. Mammalian neurotropic pathogens could be tested in two Drosophila central nervous system (CNS) infection setups (ex vivo and in vivo) for their ability to: (1) invade the CNS (pathogen quantifications), (2) disturb blood–brain barrier permeability, (3) affect CNS host cell behaviour (gene expression), and (4) alter host viability.


0 Q&A 1544 Views Aug 5, 2022

Cryptococcus neoformans is a human pathogenic fungus that can cause pulmonary infections and meningitis in both immunocompromised and otherwise healthy individuals. Limited treatment options and a high mortality rate underlie the necessity for extensive research of the virulence of C. neoformans. Here we describe a detailed protocol for using the Galleria mellonella (Greater Wax Moth) larvae as a model organism for the virulence analysis of the cryptococcal infections. This protocol describes in detail the evaluation of G. mellonella larvae viability and the alternatives for troubleshooting the infection procedure. This protocol can be easily modified to study different inocula or fungal species, or the effects of a drug or antifungal agent on fungal disease within the larvae. We describe modified alternative versions of the protocol that allow using G. mellonella to study fungal diseases with different inocula and at different temperatures.

0 Q&A 959 Views Aug 5, 2022

Microbiome studies are quickly gaining momentum. Since most of the resident microbes (consisting of bacteria, fungi, and viruses) are difficult to culture, sequencing the microbial genome is the method of choice to characterize them. It is therefore important to have efficient methodology for gDNA isolation of gut microbes. Mouse models are widely used to understand human disease etiology while avoiding human ethics-related complications. However, the widely used kit-based methods are costly, and sometimes yields (in terms of quality and quantity) are sub-optimal. To overcome this problem, we developed a straightforward, standardized DNA isolation procedure from mouse cecal content for further microbiome-related studies. The reagents we used to standardize the procedure are readily available even in a not-so-well-equipped laboratory, and the reagents are not expensive. The yield and quality of the DNA are also better than those obtained by the readily available kit-based methods.


Additionally, we modified the kit-based method of RNA isolation from the colon tissue sample of the mouse for better yield. Churning the tissue with liquid nitrogen at the beginning of the procedure improves RNA quality and quantity.


Graphical abstract:




0 Q&A 4457 Views Jul 5, 2022

Profiling the specificities of antibodies can reveal a wealth of information about humoral immune responses and the antigens they target. Here, we present a protocol for VirScan, an application of the phage immunoprecipitation sequencing (PhIP-Seq) method for profiling the specificities of human antiviral antibodies. Accompanying this protocol is a video of the experimental procedure. VirScan and, more generally, PhIP-Seq are techniques that enable high-throughput antibody profiling by combining high-throughput DNA oligo synthesis and bacteriophage display with next-generation sequencing. In the VirScan method, human sera samples are screened against a library of peptides spanning the entire human viral proteome. Bound phage are immunoprecipitated and sequenced, identifying the viral peptides recognized by the antibodies. VirScan Is a powerful tool for uncovering individual viral exposure histories, mapping the epitope landscape of viruses of interest, and studying fundamental mechanisms of viral immunity.


Graphical abstract: