微生物学


分类

现刊
往期刊物
0 Q&A 503 Views Apr 20, 2024

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) has become the state of the art for mutagenesis in filamentous fungi. Here, we describe a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP)-mediated CRISPR/Cas9 for mutagenesis in Sporisorium reilianum. The efficiency of the method was tested in vitro with a cleavage assay as well as in vivo with a GFP-expressing S. reilianum strain. We applied this method to generate frameshift- and knock-out mutants in S. reilianum without a resistance marker by using an auto-replicating plasmid for selection. The RNP-mediated CRISPR/Cas9 increased the mutagenesis efficiency, can be applied for all kinds of mutations, and enables a marker-free genome editing in S. reilianum.

0 Q&A 1938 Views Mar 20, 2022

Phytophthora sojae is a model species for the study of plant pathogenic oomycetes. The initial research on gene function using Phytophthora was mainly based on gene silencing technology. Recently, the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology was successfully established in P. sojae and widely used in oomycetes. In this protocol, we describe the operating procedures for the use of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing technology and PEG-mediated stable transformation of P. sojae protoplasts. Two plasmids were co-transformed into P. sojae: pYF515 expressing Cas9 and the single guide RNA, and the homologous replacement vector of the candidate gene. Finally, the ORF of candidate gene were replaced with the ORF of the entire hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (HPH), to achieve precise knockout.

0 Q&A 2316 Views Mar 5, 2022

Directed evolution is a powerful approach to obtain genetically-encoded sought-for traits. Compared to the prolonged adaptation regimes to mutations occurring under natural selection, directed evolution unlocks rapid screening and selection of mutants with improved traits from vast mutated sequence spaces. Many systems have been developed to search variant landscapes based on ex vivo or in vivo mutagenesis, to identify and select new-to-nature and optimized properties in biomolecules. Yet, the majority of such systems rely on tedious iterations of library preparation, propagation, and selection steps. Furthermore, among the relatively few in vivo directed evolution systems developed to mitigate handling of repetitive ex vivo steps, directed evolution of DNA is the standard approach. Here, we present the protocol for designing the transfer of genetic information from evolving RNA donors to DNA in baker’s yeast, using CRISPR- and RNA-assisted in vivo directed evolution (CRAIDE). We use mutant T7 RNA polymerase to introduce mutations in RNA donors, while incorporation into DNA is directed by CRISPR/Cas9. As such, CRAIDE offers an opportunity to study fundamental questions, such as RNA’s contribution to the evolution of DNA-based life on Earth.


Graphic abstract:



CRISPR- and RNA-assisted in vivo directed evolution (CRAIDE).


0 Q&A 3382 Views Jul 5, 2021

Nowadays, CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and the CRISPR-associated protein (Cas9) system play a major role in genome editing. To target the desired sequence of the genome successfully, guide RNA (gRNA) is indispensable for the CRISPR/Cas9 system. To express gRNA, a plasmid expressing the gRNA sequence is typically constructed; however, construction of plasmids involves much time and labor. In this study, we propose a novel procedure to express gRNA via a much simpler method that we call gRNA-TES (gRNA-transient expression system). This method employs only PCR, and all the steps including PCR and yeast transformation can be completed within 1 day. In comparison with the plasmid-based gRNA delivery system, the performance of gRNA-TES is more effective, and its total time and cost are significantly reduced.

0 Q&A 3572 Views Jun 20, 2020
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a novel genetic tool which allows the precise manipulation of virtually any genomic sequence. In this protocol, we use a specific CRISPR/Cas9 system for the manipulation of Ashbya gossypii. The filamentous fungus A. gossypii is currently used for the industrial production of riboflavin (vitamina B2). In addition, A. gossypii produces other high-value compounds such as folic acid, nucleosides and biolipids. A large molecular toolbox is available for the genomic manipulation of this fungus including gene targeting methods, rapid assembly of heterologous expression modules and, recently, a one-vector CRISPR/Cas9 editing system adapted for A. gossypii that allows marker-free engineering strategies to be implemented. The CRISPR/Cas9 system comprises an RNA guided DNA endonuclease (Cas9) and a guide RNA (gRNA), which is complementary to the genomic target region. The Cas9 nuclease requires a 5′-NGG-3′ trinucleotide, called protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), to generate a double-strand break (DSB) in the genomic target, which can be repaired with a synthetic mutagenic donor DNA (dDNA) by homologous recombination (HR), thus introducing a specific designed mutation. The CRISPR/Cas9 system adapted for A. gossypii largely facilitates the genomic edition of this industrial fungus.
1 Q&A 5677 Views Feb 20, 2020
Plasmodium knowlesi is a zoonotic malaria parasite in Southeast Asia that can cause severe and fatal malaria in humans. The main hosts are Macaques, but modern diagnostic tools reveal increasing numbers of human infections. After P. falciparum, P. knowlesi is the only other malaria parasite capable of being maintained in long term in vitro culture with human red blood cells (RBCs). Its closer ancestry to other non-falciparum human malaria parasites, more balanced AT-content, larger merozoites and higher transfection efficiencies, gives P. knowlesi some key advantages over P. falciparum for the study of malaria parasite cell/molecular biology. Here, we describe the generation of marker-free CRISPR gene-edited P. knowlesi parasites, the fast and scalable production of transfection constructs and analysis of transfection efficiencies. Our protocol allows rapid, reliable and unlimited rounds of genome editing in P. knowlesi requiring only a single recyclable selection marker.
0 Q&A 7428 Views Jan 5, 2020
Simplicity, efficiency and versatility of the CRISPR/Cas system greatly contributed to its rapid use in a broad range of fields. Applications of unbiased CRISPR/Cas screenings are increasing and thus there is a growing need for unbiased and tailored CRISPR/Cas gRNA libraries. Conventional methods for gRNA library generation apply PCR and cloning techniques, thus coupling library diversity with distribution. Here, we provide additional technical expertise to apply our covalently-closed-circular synthesized (3Cs) gRNA library generation technology for the generation of high-quality CRISPR/Cas gRNA libraries. F1-origin of replication-containing plasmid DNA is transformed into CJ236 bacteria for single colony outgrow followed by M13KO7 bacteriophage superinfection for the production and preparation of circular dU-containing ssDNA. dU-ssDNA is annealed with homology- and gRNA-encoding DNA oligonucleotides for their T7 DNA polymerase-mediated extension to form hetero-duplexed CCC-dsDNA (3Cs-dsDNA). 3Cs-dsDNA is electroporated for the selected amplification of the newly synthesized, gRNA-containing strand. To remove wild-type plasmid remnants, the purified plasmid DNA is digested with restriction enzymes targeting the gRNA-placeholder sequence in the template DNA. Undigested plasmid is electroporated for the extraction of the final 3Cs gRNA library. Due to the absence of PCR amplification and conventional cloning steps, the 3Cs technology uncouples sequence diversity from sequence distribution, thereby generating gRNA libraries with near-uniform distribution in diversities being only limited by electroporation efficiencies.
0 Q&A 8120 Views Jul 20, 2018
The smut fungus Ustilago maydis is an established model organism for elucidating how biotrophic pathogens colonize plants and how gene families contribute to virulence. Here we describe a step by step protocol for the generation of CRISPR plasmids for single and multiplexed gene editing in U. maydis. Furthermore, we describe the necessary steps required for generating edited clonal populations, losing the Cas9 containing plasmid, and for selecting the desired clones.