Caroline Grönwall
  • Faculty, Department of Medicine, Rheumatology Division, Karolinska University Hospital. Center for Molecular Medicine, Stockholm
  • Immunology


Grönwall Lab:
Our main research aim is to increase our understanding about how autoantibodies and autoreactive B cells contribute to the pathogenesis of human disease, with the future goal to develop new prognostic and therapeutic strategies. Our studies include investigations of both potentially pathogenic IgG reactivities as well as natural IgM reactivities with potentially immune-homeostatic capacities. We are using antibody engineering and high-throughput methodology to study the immunoglobulin diversity of autoreactive B cells in RA and SLE. We are in addition directly studying the immune activating properties of human monoclonal autoreactive antibody clones isolated from patients, and investigating how to modulate these functions in novel therapeutic approaches. We are especially interested in autoreactivity to post-translational modifications (PTMs) in different classes of autoantibodies.


Autoantibodies; Autoreactive B cells; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Adaptive Immunity; Antibody engineering


Lloyd, K.A., Gustaf Wigerblad, G., Sahlström, P., Garimella, M.G., Chemin, K., Steen, J., Titcombe, P.J., Marklein, B., Diana, Z., Stålesen, R., Elena Ossipova, Lundqvist, C., Ekwall, O., Rönnelid, J., Mueller, D.L., Karlsson, M.C.I. Skriner, K., Klareskog, L., Wermeling, F., Malmström, V., Grönwall, C. (2019) Differential ACPA binding to nuclear antigens reveals a PAD4-independent pathway and a distinct subset of autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. Front. Immunol. Jan 4 PMID: 30662440

Parodis I, Ding H, Zickert A, Cosson G, Fathima M, Grönwall C, Mohan C, Gunnarsson I. (2019) Serum Axl predicts histology-based response to induction therapy and long-term renal outcome in lupus nephritis. PLoS One. 2019 Feb 11;14(2):e0212068. eCollection 2019. PMID: 30742665
Malmström, V, Grönwall, C. The parallel worlds of ACPA-positive and RF-positive B cells. (2018) Nat. Rev. Rheumatol. Nov;14(11):626-628 PMID:30266975

Lloyd, K., Steen, J., Titcombe, P.J., Amara, K., Israelsson, L., Lundström, L.S., Zhou, D., Zubarev, R.A., Reed, E., Piccoli, L., Gabay, C., Lanzavecchia, A., Baeten, D., Lundberg, K., Mueller, D.L., Klareskog, L., Malmström, V., Grönwall, C. (2018) Variable domain N-linked glycosylation and negative surface charge are key features of monoclonal ACPA: implications for B-cell selection Eur J Immunol Jun;48(6):1030-1045. PMID:29512823

Hardt, U., Larsson A., Gunnarsson, I., Clancy, R.M, Petri, M., Buyon, J.P., Silverman, G.J., Svenungsson, E., Grönwall, C. (2018) Autoimmune reactivity to malondialdehyde adducts in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is associated with disease activity and nephritis. Arthritis Res Ther Feb 26; 20(1):36 PMID:29482604

Steen J, Forsström B, Sahlström P, Odowd V, Israelsson L, Krishnamurthy A, Badreh S, Mathsson Alm L, Compson J, Ramsköld D, Ndlovu W, Rapecki S, Hansson M, Titcombe PJ, Bang H, Mueller DL, Catrina AI, Grönwall C, Skriner K, Nilsson P, Lightwood D, Klareskog L, Malmström V. (2018) Human plasma cell derived monoclonal antibodies to post-translationally modified proteins recognize amino acid motifs rather than specific proteins. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Aug 27. (Epub ahead of print) PMID: 30152202

Grönwall, C., Hardt, U., Gustafsson, J.T., Elvin, K., Jensen-Urstad, K., Kvarnström, M., Grosso, G., Rönnelid, J., Padyukov, L., Gunnarsson, I., Silverman, G.J., Svenungsson, E. (2017) Depressed serum IgM levels in SLE are restricted to defined subgroups. Clinical Immunology, Sep 15 PMID:28919518

Grönwall, C., Amara, K., Hardt, U., Krishnamurthy, A., Steen, J., Engström, M., Sun, M., Ytterberg, A.J., Zubarev, R.A., Scheel-Toellner, D., Greenberg, J.D., Klareskog L, Catrina AI, Malmström V, Silverman GJ. (2017) Autoreactivity to malondialdehyde-modifications in rheumatoid arthritis is linked to disease activity and synovial pathogenesis. J Autoimmun. 2017 Jun 21. PMID:28647488

Pelzek AJ, Grönwall C, Rosenthal P, Greenberg JD, McGeachy M, Moreland L, Rigby WF, Silverman GJ. (2017) Disease associated anti-citrullinated protein memory B cells in rheumatoid arthritis persist in clinical remission. Arthritis Rheumatol. PMID:28118534

Grönwall C., Clancy, R.M., Getu, L., Lloyd K.A., Siegel, D.L., Reed, J.H., Buyon, J.P., Silverman, G.J. (2016) Modulation of natural IgM autoantibodies to oxidative stress-related neo-epitopes on apoptotic cells in newborns of mothers with anti-Ro autoimmunity. J Autoimmun. 73:30-41 PMID: 27289167

Amara, K., Clay, E., Yeo, L., Ramsköld, D., Spengler, J., Sippl, N., Cameron, J., Israelsson, L., Titcombe, P.J., Grönwall, C., Sahbuddin, I., Filer, A., Raza, K., Malmström, V., Scheel-Toellner, D. (2017) B cells expressing the IgA receptor FcRL4 participate in the autoimmune response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Autoimmun. 81:34-43 PMID:28343748

Grönwall, C., Charles, E.D., Dustin, L.B., Rader, C., Silverman, G.J. (2014) Selection of apoptotic cell specific human antibodies from adult bone marrow. PLoS One., 9(4) PMID:24760047

Grönwall, C., Reynolds, H., Kim, J., Buyon, J., Goldberg, J.D., Clancy, R.M, Silverman, G.J. (2014) Relation of carotid plaque with natural IgM antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol., 153(1):1-7 PMID:24704464

Silverman G.J., Vas J., Grönwall, C., (2013) Protective autoantibodies in the rheumatic diseases: lessons for therapy. Nat. Rev. Rheumatology. 9(5):291-300 PMID:23507902

Grönwall, C.€, Chen, Y. €, Vas J., Khanna, S., Thiel, S., Corr, M., Kono, D.H., Silverman G.J. (2012) MAPK phosphatase-1 is required for regulatory natural autoantibody mediated inhibition of TLR responses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 109:19745-19750 PMID:23139409

Vas, J, Grönwall C., Marshak-Rothstein, A., Silverman, G.J. (2012) Natural antibody to apoptotic cell membranes inhibits the proinflammatory properties of lupus autoantibody immune complexes. Arthritis Rheum. 64(10):3388-98. PMID:22577035

Grönwall, C., Kosakovsky Pond, S.L., Young, J.A., Silverman, G.J. (2012) In vivo VL-targeted microbial superantigen induced global shifts in the B cell repertoire. Journal of Immunology 189(2):850-9. PMID:22696444

Grönwall, C., Akhter, E., Oh, C., Burlingame, R.W., Petri, M., Silverman, G.J. (2012). IgM autoantibodies to distinct apoptosis-associated antigens correlate with protection from cardiovascular events and renal disease in patients with SLE. Clin Immunol. 142(3):390-8. PMID:2229716