0 Q&A 309 Views Apr 5, 2024

Citrus fruits encompass a diverse family, including oranges, mandarins, grapefruits, limes, kumquats, lemons, and others. In citrus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens–mediated genetic transformation of Hongkong kumquat (Fortunella hindsii Swingle) has been widely employed for gene function analysis. However, the perennial nature of woody plants results in the generation of transgenic fruits taking several years. Here, we show the procedures of Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation and live-cell imaging in kumquat (F. crassifolia Swingle) fruit, using the actin filament marker GFP-Lifeact as an example. Fluorescence detection, western blot analysis, and live-cell imaging with confocal microscopy demonstrate the high transformation efficiency and an extended expression window of this system. Overall, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation of kumquat fruits provides a rapid and effective method for studying gene function in fruit, enabling the effective observation of diverse cellular processes in fruit biology.

0 Q&A 582 Views Sep 5, 2023

Studies on chromosomal status are a fundamental aspect of plant cytogenetics and breeding because changes in number, size, and shape of chromosomes determine plant physiology/performance. Despite its significance, the classical cytogenetic study is now frequently avoided because of its tedious job. In general, root meristems are used to study the mitotic chromosome number, even though the use of root tips was restricted because of sample availability, processing, and lack of standard protocols. Moreover, to date, a protocol using shoot tips to estimate chromosome number has not yet been achieved for tree species’ germplasm with a large number of accessions, like mulberry (Morus spp.). Here, we provide a step-by-step, economically feasible protocol for the pretreatment, fixation, enzymatic treatment, staining, and squashing of meristematic shoot tips. The protocol is validated with worldwide collections of 200 core set accessions with a higher level of ploidy variation, namely diploid (2n = 2x = 28), triploid (2n = 3x = 42), tetraploid (2n = 4x = 56), hexaploid (2n = 6x = 84), and decosaploid (2n = 22x = 308) belonging to nine species of Morus spp. Furthermore, accession from each ploidy group was subjected to flow cytometry (FCM) analysis for confirmation. The present protocol will help to optimize metaphase plate preparation and estimation of chromosome number using meristematic shoot tips of tree species regardless of their sex, location, and/or resources.

0 Q&A 1560 Views Sep 5, 2023

Expansion microscopy is an innovative method that enables super-resolution imaging of biological materials using a simple confocal microscope. The principle of this method relies on the physical isotropic expansion of a biological specimen cross-linked to a swellable polymer, stained with antibodies, and imaged. Since its first development, several improved versions of expansion microscopy and adaptations for different types of samples have been produced. Here, we show the application of ultrastructure expansion microscopy (U-ExM) to investigate the 3D organization of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cellular ultrastructure, with a particular emphasis on the different types of sample fixation that can be used, as well as compatible staining procedures including membranes.

Graphical overview

0 Q&A 362 Views Sep 5, 2023

Since the genetic transformation of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) has not been well developed, in situ RT-PCR is a valuable option for detecting guard cell–specific genes. We reported an optimized protocol of in situ RT-PCR by using a FAMA homologous gene Bra001929 in Brassica rapa. FAMA in Arabidopsis has been verified to be especially expressed in guard cells. We designed specific RT-PCR primers and optimized the protocol in terms of the (a) reverse transcription time, (b) blocking time, (c) antigen-antibody incubation time, and (d) washing temperature. Our approach provides a sensitive and effective in situ RT-PCR method that can detect low-abundance transcripts in cells by elevating their levels by RT-PCR in the guard cells in Brassica rapa.

0 Q&A 473 Views Feb 20, 2023

Chloroplast movement has been observed and analyzed since the 19th century. Subsequently, the phenomenon is widely observed in various plant species such as fern, moss, Marchantia polymorpha, and Arabidopsis. However, chloroplast movement in rice is less investigated, presumably due to the thick wax layer on its leaf surface, which reduces light sensitivity to the point that it was previously believed that there was no light-induced movement in rice. In this study, we present a convenient protocol suitable for observing chloroplast movement in rice only by optical microscopy without using special equipment. It will allow researchers to explore other signaling components involved in chloroplast movement in rice.

0 Q&A 1815 Views Aug 20, 2022

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular degradation process. During autophagy, a set of autophagy-related (ATG) proteins orchestrate the formation of double-bound membrane vesicles called autophagosomes to engulf cytoplasmic material and deliver it to the vacuole for breakdown. Among ATG proteins, the ATG8 is the only one decorating mature autophagosomes and therefore is regarded as a bona fide autophagic marker; colocalization assays with ATG8 are wildly used as a reliable method to identify the components of autophagy machinery or autophagic substrates. Here, we describe a colocalization assay with fluorescent-tagged ATG8 using a tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana)-based transient expression system.

0 Q&A 2575 Views Nov 20, 2021

Eukaryotic cells use a diverse set of transporters to control the movement of lipids across their plasma membrane, which drastically affects membrane properties. Various tools and techniques to analyze the activity of these transporters have been developed. Among them, assays based on fluorescent phospholipid probes are particularly suitable, allowing for imaging and quantification of lipid internalization in living cells. Classically, these assays have been applied to yeast and animal cells. Here, we describe the adaptation of this powerful approach to characterize lipid internalization in plant roots and aerial tissues using confocal imaging.

Graphic abstract:

Fluorescent lipid uptake in Arabidopsis seedlings. Scale bars: seedling, 25 mm; leaf, 10 μm; root, 25 μm.

0 Q&A 2800 Views Aug 20, 2021

Analyzing cellular structures and the relative location of molecules is essential for addressing biological questions. Super-resolution microscopy techniques that bypass the light diffraction limit have become increasingly popular to study cellular molecule dynamics in situ. However, the application of super-resolution imaging techniques to detect small RNAs (sRNAs) is limited by the choice of proper fluorophores, autofluorescence of samples, and failure to multiplex. Here, we describe an sRNA-PAINT protocol for the detection of sRNAs at nanometer resolution. The method combines the specificity of locked nucleic acid probes and the low background, precise quantitation, and multiplexable characteristics of DNA Point Accumulation for Imaging in Nanoscale Topography (DNA-PAINT). Using this method, we successfully located sRNA targets that are important for development in maize anthers at sub-20 nm resolution and quantitated their exact copy numbers.

Graphic abstract:

Multiplexed sRNA-PAINT. Multiple Vetting and Analysis of RNA for In Situ Hybridization (VARNISH) probes with different docking strands (i.e., a, b, …) will be hybridized to samples. The first probe will be imaged with the a* imager. The a* imager will be washed off with buffer C, and then the sample will be imaged with b* imager. The wash and image steps can be repeated sequentially for multiplexing.

0 Q&A 3053 Views Jan 5, 2021
In plants, the morphological diversity of leaves is largely determined by cell division, especially cell division orientation. Whereas cell division itself is easily monitored, the detection and quantification of cell division orientation are difficult. The few existing methods for detection and quantification of cell division orientation are either inefficient or laborious. Here, we describe a pulse-chase strategy using a 5-ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling assay. Plant tissues are first incubated with EdU for a short period (pulse), followed by a long incubation without EdU (chase). Using this method, the positions of daughter cells are easily detected and can be used to quantify cell division orientation. Our protocol is rapid and very efficient for quantitative analysis of cell division orientation, and can be applied to both model and non-model plant species.

Graphic abstract

Plant cell division pairs clearly visualized by a pulse-chase EdU method
0 Q&A 4965 Views Oct 5, 2020
The plant cell wall (PCW) is a pecto-cellulosic extracellular matrix that envelopes the plant cell. By integrating extra-and intra-cellular cues, PCW mediates a plethora of essential physiological functions. Notably, it permits controlled and oriented tissue growth by tuning its local mechano-chemical properties. To refine our knowledge of these essential properties of PCW, we need an appropriate tool for the accurate observation of the native (in muro) structure of the cell wall components. The label-free techniques, such as AFM, EM, FTIR, and Raman microscopy, are used; however, they either do not have the chemical or spatial resolution. Immunolabeling with electron microscopy allows observation of the cell wall nanostructure, however, it is mostly limited to single and, less frequently, multiple labeling. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a versatile tool to analyze the distribution and localization of multiple biomolecules in the tissue. The subcellular resolution of chemical changes in the cell wall component can be observed with standard diffraction-limited optical microscopy. Furthermore, novel chemical imaging tools such as multicolor 3D dSTORM (Three-dimensional, direct Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy) nanoscopy makes it possible to resolve the native structure of the cell wall polymers with nanometer precision and in three dimensions.

Here we present a protocol for preparing multi-target immunostaining of the PCW components taking as example Arabidopsis thaliana, Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola), and Maize thin tissue sections. This protocol is compatible with the standard confocal microscope, dSTORM nanoscope, and can also be implemented for other optical nanoscopy such as STED (Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscopy). The protocol can be adapted for any other subcellular compartments, plasma membrane, cytoplasmic, and intracellular organelles.